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biology of the plant cuticle

Posted on January 12th, 2021

The BDG protein has sequence similarity to the α/β-hydrolase family of proteins, but no enzymatic activity has been reported. Confocal laser scanning microscopy elucidation of the micromorphology of the leaf cuticle and analysis of its chemical composition. by Markus Riederer and Caroline Muller. The biosynthesis of cutin begins with de novo fatty acid synthesis in the plastid of epidermal cells (Fig. Most classes occur as homologous series with broad distributions of chain lengths, compounds with typical average chain lengths are shown. A Synthetic Community Approach Reveals Plant Genotypes Affecting the Phyllosphere Microbiota. Cloning of the mutated gene revealed that it encodes a protein of the GDSL-motif lipase/hydrolase (GDSL) family, which localizes to the developing cuticle (Girard et al., 2012; Yeats et al., 2012b). The cutin biopolymer matrix. An additional intracellular acyltransferase required for the synthesis of cutin polyester is a glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT). While MYB96 positively regulates wax production in response to stress, MYB41 mediates the negative regulation of cutin biosynthesis in response to similar stresses. It consists of lipid. The cuticle can be considered as a composite material made of lipophilic components, namely apolar compounds such as waxes and cutin, and hydrophilic components, namely polar compounds such as polysaccharides. Biology of the plant cuticle. It is important to note that, in this important model species, the cutin of stems and leaves is atypical in that its major component is a dicarboxylic acid (Fig. In maize (Zea mays), the HD-ZIP IV gene OUTER CELL LAYER1 (OCL1) was shown to be an epidermis-specific positive regulator of wax biosynthesis, although cutin was not quantified in plants overexpressing this gene (Javelle et al., 2010). leaves and young shoots. Written in English. Genes encoding the remaining subunits of the FAE complex, represented by KCR1, PAS2, and CER10, respectively, are less redundant, and their pleiotropic mutant phenotypes underscore the shared importance of the FAE in generating VLCFA precursors for sphingolipid biosynthesis (Zheng et al., 2005; Bach et al., 2008; Beaudoin et al., 2009). However, given that ABA is already well established as a regulator of plant responses to water deficit through the regulation of stomatal aperture (Lee and Luan, 2012), ABA regulation of cuticle biosynthesis is an intriguing area for further research aimed at understanding and engineering drought tolerance in crops. The plant cuticle represents the initial contact surface between microorganisms and the plant. The microscopic structure of the cuticle is often divided into two domains based on histochemical staining and their presumed chemical composition: a cutin-rich domain with embedded polysaccharides, which is referred to as the “cuticular layer,” and an overlying layer that is less abundant in polysaccharides but enriched in waxes, referred to as the “cuticle proper” (Fig. Stanford Libraries' official online search tool for books, media, journals, databases, government documents and more. Cuticles vary considerably in their architecture and, depending on species and ontogeny, differ dramatically in hickness, from the nanometer to the micrometer scale (Jeffree, 2006). Biology of the Plant Cuticle (Annual Plant Reviews, Vol. Even within this restricted context, the analysis of regulatory mutants is complicated by compensatory mechanisms between cutin and wax biosynthesis and other pleiotropic phenotypes. Although the cuticle is usually considered independently from the underlying polysaccharide cell wall of the epidermis, the two structures are physically associated and have some overlapping functions. The identification of additional suppressors of cuticle mutant-associated developmental phenotypes should be informative in elucidating the cuticle integrity pathway. Indeed, in recent years, there have been many instances of unexpected associations between the cuticle and diverse aspects of plant biology. Classical biochemistry, using crude extracts from pea (Pisum sativum), indicated that the reaction likely occurs via the reduction of VLCFA-CoA to an aldehyde intermediate followed by decarbonylation, yielding an alkane that is 1C shorter (Cheesbrough and Kolattukudy, 1984; Schneider-Belhaddad and Kolattukudy, 2000). For example, studies of three tomato mutants (cd1–cd3), each of which has a greater than 95% reduction in fruit cutin levels, revealed only minor increases in the rate of water loss, and even among the mutants there was no clear correlation between cutin amount and susceptibility to desiccation (Isaacson et al., 2009). Changes in leaf epicuticular wax, gas exchange and biochemistry metabolism between Jatropha mollissima and Jatropha curcas under semi-arid conditions. Lastly, a defect in the formation of floral nanoridges was also identified in the Arabidopsis mutant defective in cuticular ridges (dcr), which showed a substantial deficiency in floral cutin but a less drastic alteration of leaf and stem cutin (Panikashvili et al., 2009). Class I TCP transcription factors regulate trichome branching and cuticle development in Arabidopsis. Biology of the plant cuticle Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed This Item. Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 23 A much clearer picture is now emerging of the fine structure of the plant cuticle and its surface, the composition of cuticular waxes and the biosynthetic pathways leading to them. Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. 3A). A major remaining question is how hydrophobic cuticle precursors are transported across the hydrophilic environment of the polysaccharide cell wall to the cuticle. Smooth, glossy “glabrous” cuticles typically reflect only small amounts of light (less than 10%), but glaucous plant surfaces are moderately reflective and generally show approximately 20% to 30% reflectance in the UV and visible spectra (Pfündel et al., 2006). Additionally, a third Arabidopsis half transporter, ABCG13, was shown to be required for cutin deposition in flowers (Panikashvili et al., 2011). 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