leopard seal vs elephant seal
Posted on January 12th, 2021
Leopard seals are the third largest seal in the world. And, When the leopard seal was not looking, The orca uses it’s massive jaws to take a huge bite out of the leopard seal’s body. , Some species have become so numerous that they conflict with local people. Other species known to enter freshwater include California sea lions and South American sea lions.  The scale of seal harvesting decreased substantially after the 1960s, after the Canadian government reduced the length of the hunting season and implemented measures to protect adult females. Pinnipeds also have very muscular and vascularized irises.  Lekking may also exist among California sea lions, South American fur seals, New Zealand sea lions and harbor seals. , In a match-to-sample task study, a single California sea lion was able to demonstrate an understanding of symmetry, transitivity and equivalence; a second seal was unable to complete the tasks. While most vocals are audible to the human ear, a captive leopard seal was recorded making ultrasonic calls underwater. , Lek systems are known to exist among some populations of walruses.  The fossil monachine Monotherium and phocine Leptophoca were found in southeastern North America. Elephant seals are rarely seen on the surface of water.  Male hooded seals use their inflatable nasal membranes to display to and attract females. These two amazing creatures are larger than grizzly bears and are some of the top marine predators.  Species that live in polar habitats are vulnerable to the effects of recent and ongoing climate change, particularly declines in sea ice. Besides hunting, pinnipeds also face threats from accidental trapping, marine pollution, and conflicts with local people.  Organizations like PETA believe that such operations put the animals in danger.  Young pinnipeds typically learn to swim on their own and some species can even swim at birth. They will, however, break off mating to chase off a rival. 881–884 in Perrin, Würsig and, Ralls, K.; Mesnick, S. "Sexual dimorphism", pp. They also were sexually dimorphic and may have been capable of propelling themselves with both the foreflippers and hindflippers.  Pinniped skulls have large eye orbits, short snouts and a constricted interorbital region. Proponents of seal hunts insist that the animals are killed humanely and the white-coated pups are not taken, while opponents argue that it is irresponsible to kill harp seals as they are already threatened by declining habitat. These tissue masses, which contain extensive contorted spirals of arteries and thin-walled veins, act as blood reservoirs that increase oxygen stores for use during diving. , The eyes of pinnipeds are relatively large for their size and are positioned near the front of the head.  Some species may swallow stones or pebbles for reasons not understood. , Pinnipeds range in size from the 1 m (3 ft 3 in) and 45 kg (99 lb) Baikal seal to the 5 m (16 ft) and 3,200 kg (7,100 lb) southern elephant seal. They can also dive 1,259–4,100 m (4,131–13,451 ft) and for as long as 62 minutes.  Polygynous species also tend to be extremely sexual dimorphic in favor of males.  Pinnipeds are typically countershaded, and are darker colored dorsally and lighter colored ventrally, which serves to eliminate shadows caused by light shining over the ocean water. However, morphological and molecular evidence support a monophyletic origin. These males commonly disrupt the copulations of their subordinates while they themselves can mount without inference. Zalophus, Eumetopias and Otaria diverged next, with the latter colonizing the coast of South America. The sea lion's hind flippers are stronger and more flexible.  Sea lions also conflict with fisherman since both depend on the same fish stocks. The fight takes place in the Antarctic seas. To keep their blood pressure stable, phocids have an elastic aorta that dissipates some of the energy of each heartbeat. Many docks are not designed to withstand the weight of several resting sea lions.  American zoologist Joel Asaph Allen reviewed the world's pinnipeds in an 1880 monograph, History of North American pinnipeds, a monograph of the walruses, sea-lions, sea-bears and seals of North America. Seals range in size from the 1 m (3 ft 3 in) and 45 kg (99 lb) Baikal seal to the 5 m (16 ft) and 3,200 kg (7,100 lb) southern elephant seal male, which is also the largest member of the order Carnivora. In water, true seals swim by moving their hind-flippers and lower body from side to side. The pattern is similar to that of the famous big cat, though the seal's coat is gray rather than golden in color. The trachea is flexible enough to collapse under pressure. Some pups may try to steal extra milk from other nursing mothers and gain weight more quickly than others.  Several species have male-biased sexual dimorphism that correlates with the degree of polygyny in a species: highly polygynous species like elephant seals are extremely sexually dimorphic, while less polygynous species have males and females that are closer in size.  Compared to terrestrial carnivorans, the fore-limbs of otariids are reduced in length, which gives the locomotor muscles at the shoulder and elbow joints greater mechanical advantage; the hind-flippers serve as stabilizers. Polygynous species include elephant seals, grey seals and most otariids. Sea lions have been recorded climbing up flights of stairs. While their mothers are away, the pups will fast. The Greeks associated them with both the sea and sun and were considered to be under the protection of the gods Poseidon and Apollo. They typically last 5–7 minutes with average depths to 30–45 m (98–148 ft). Their bodies are long and slender and their heads appear to be almost a little too large for their thin serpent like bodies. The ancestor of the Baikal seal migrated into Lake Baikal from the Arctic (via the Siberian ice sheet) and became isolated there.  Despite a correlation between size dimorphism and the degree of polygyny, some evidence suggests that size differences between the sexes originated due to ecological differences and prior to the development of polygyny. Once relentlessly hunted by commercial industries for their products, seals and walruses are now protected by international law.  One study of three species—the harbor seal, California sea lion and northern elephant seal—found that the sea lion was best adapted for airborne hearing, the harbor seal was equally capable of hearing in air and water, and the elephant seal was better adapted for underwater hearing.  The anterior end of an otariid's frontal bones extends between the nasal bones, and the supraorbital foramen is large and flat horizontally.  For sea lions used in entertainment, trainers toss a ball at the animal so it may accidentally balance it or hold the ball on its nose, thereby gaining an understanding of the behavior desired.  Efforts to chase sea lions away from the area have also proven ineffective. , Vocalizations are particularly important during the breeding seasons. Larger animals like walruses and Steller sea lions are much less common. Prey that is too large or awkward is taken to the surface to be torn apart. Heat from the arterial blood is transferred to the blood vessels, which then recirculate blood back to the core.  In 1989, Annalisa Berta and colleagues proposed the unranked clade Pinnipedimorpha to contain the fossil genus Enaliarctos and modern seals as a sister group.  In modern culture, pinnipeds are thought of as cute, playful and comical figures. In otariid species like the South American and Australian sea lions, non-territorial subadults form "gangs" and cause chaos within the breeding rookeries to increase their chances of mating with females. 316–321 in Perrin, Würsig and, Weller, D. W. "Predation on marine mammals", pp.  For most species, birthing takes place in the spring and summer months. I just made this video because I thought that it’s a fair fight. They are typically hunted by groups of 10 or fewer whales, but they are occasionally hunted by larger groups or by lone individuals. The Japanese sea lion and the Caribbean monk seal have become extinct in the past century, while the Mediterranean monk seal and Hawaiian monk seal are ranked endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.  The corneal epithelium is keratinized and the sclera is thick enough to withstand the pressures of diving. They feed largely on fish and marine invertebrates; a few, such as the leopard seal, feed on large vertebrates, such as penguins and other seals. They spend most of their lives in the water, but come ashore to mate, give birth, molt or escape from predators, such as sharks and killer whales. In temperate and tropical areas, they haul out on to sandy and pebble beaches, rocky shores, shoals, mud flats, tide pools and in sea caves. Otariids have visible external ears, while phocids and walruses lack these.  Species that breed on land are usually polygynous, as females gather in large aggregations and males are able to mate with them as well as defend them from rivals.  The age at which a pinniped sexually matures can vary from 2–12 years depending on the species. The Leopard seal bites the Elephant seal on the tail, which was a good target for the start.  Subadult male South America sea lions sometimes abduct pups from their mothers and treat them like adult males treat females.  Walruses have the most vibrissae, at 600–700 individual hairs.  The monochines diversified southward. The Elephant seal goes back on the ice.  Male vocals are usually of lower frequencies than those of the females. One exception is the walrus, whose smaller eyes are located on the sides of its head. Otariids typically have injuries in the hindquarters, while phocids usually have injuries on the forequarters. The Elephant seal jumps of an ice flow to another part the Antarctic to find a mate. The deep split between the lineages of Erignathus and Cystophora 17 Mya suggests that the phocines migrated eastward and northward from the North Atlantic. The southern elephant seal, which is had significantly larger bulls than the northern elephant seal, is the largest marine mammal that is not a cetacean.  Five genera and seven species (one now extinct) of sea lion are known to exist, while two genera and nine species of fur seal exist. While seals were historically thought to have descended from two ancestral lines, molecular evidence supports them as a monophyletic lineage (descended from one ancestral line). Females are generally slightly larger than the males on average. Pinnipeds may move further inland and rest in sand dunes or vegetation, and may even climb cliffs. Teeth chattering, hisses and exhalations are also made as aggressive warnings.  Pinnipedia was historically considered its own suborder under Carnivora. The most common pinniped species kept in captivity is the California sea lion as it is both easy to train and adaptable. Scientists have recorded them sleeping for minutes at a time while slowly drifting downward in a belly-up orientation. The Leopard seal bites the Elephant seal on the tail, which was a good target for the start. Other species popularly kept include the grey seal and harbor seal. Bulls of the northern elephant seal typically weigh in at 1500-2300 kg and have a length of 4-5 meters. Terrestrial locomotion is easier for phocids on ice, as they can sled along. Photo taken at Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (California), February 26, 2004.  This is because it feeds on immobile bottom dwelling mollusks and hence does not need acute vision. The well-developed dilator muscle gives the animals a great range in pupil dilation. This distinction is being questioned as indigenous people are using more modern weaponry and mechanized transport to hunt with, and are selling seal products in the marketplace. In addition to their streamlined bodies, they have smooth networks of muscle bundles in their skin that may increase laminar flow and make it easier for them to slip through water. , Pinnipeds are also threatened by humans indirectly. Several species had enlarged upper and lower canines. Originally, seals were hit with clubs during haul-out. In lobodontine seals, females are slightly larger than males. Quote.  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